Scientific technique is defined as principles and procedures for experimentation of systematic observations in pursuit for knowledge. This involves identification and formulation of problems, data collection, and hypothesis testing. The first step of scientific method is asking the question about an observation that can be measured preferably numerically. The next step is construction of an hypothesis, which is an informed guess concerning an observation with goal of getting answers with a backed up explanation that be taken through a test. Hypothesis testing is the third method where it is determined if the prediction was correct and can be supported or not. Data analysis of the finding is then done in order for inference and conclusion to be conducted. To complete a scientific research, it is essential to communicate the findings in terms of a comprehensive report.
The four major research designs are survey, observation, experiment and secondary analysis. Survey is a process conducting a research by which questionnaires are administered to respondents for data collection. The data is then analyzed and meaningful conclusions are drawn. As the name suggests, observation is a research design method done by observation where the researcher participates through seeing, listening and taking notes or recording. Experimental research strictly follows scientific procedures that includes hypothesis and the variables are measurable. Secondary analysis is done on data that was already done on primary sources.
The Hawthorne effect is a term that refers to the inclination and tendency of respondents to change their behavior when they are aware they are being evaluated. It was first introduced by researcher Henry A Landsberger when he was doing analysis of experiments. Experimental research design was used on Western Electrics Hawthorne. The significance of the Hawthorne effect motivated researchers to study workers motivation and how to get better productivity